An overview of Chinese history through its major dynasties.
During the reign of the emperor Ashoka 3rd century bcethe Theravada school was established in Sri Lankawhere it subsequently divided into three subgroups, known after their respective monastic centres.
The cosmopolitan Abhayagiriviharavasi maintained open relations with Mahayana and later Vajrayana monks and welcomed new ideas from India.
The Mahaviharavasi—with whom the third group, the Jetavanaviharavasi, was loosely associated—established the first monastery in Sri Lanka and preserved intact the original Theravadin teachings. It was established in Myanmar in the late 11th century, in Thailand in the 13th and early 14th centuries, and in Cambodia and Laos by the end of the 14th century.
Although Mahavihara never completely replaced other schools in Southeast Asia, it received special favour at most royal courts and, as a result of the support it received from local elites, exerted a very strong religious and social influence.
Beliefs, doctrines, and practices Cosmology Like other Buddhists, Theravadins believe that the number of cosmos is infinite. Moreover, they share the near-universal Buddhist view that the cosmos inhabited by humankind, like all cosmos, has three planes of existence: The three planes are divided into various levels.
The realm of desire is divided into heavens, hells, and the earth. It is inhabited by those suffering in the various hells—a species of wandering, famished ghosts Sanskrit: The entire cosmos is enclosed by a great Chakkavala wall, a ring of iron mountains that serves as a kind of container for the realm of desire.
Mount Meruthe great cosmic mountain topped by the heaven of the 33 gods over which Indra Sakka presides, is surrounded by a great ocean where people live on four island continents, each inhabited by a different type of human being. The southern continent, loosely correlated with South—and sometimes Southeast—Asia, is called Jambudvipa.
The material aspect of the realm of desire is made up of four elements: In this cosmos, as in all others, time moves in cycles of great duration involving a period of involution destruction of the cosmos by fire, water, aira period of reformation of the cosmic structure, a series of cycles of decline and renewal, and, finally, another period of involution from which the process is initiated once again.
Five buddhas are destined to appear in the cosmos in which humans live, including Gotama Sanskrit: Gautamawho is to be the fourth, and Metteyya Sanskrit: Maitreyawho is to be the fifth.
Human existence is a privileged state, because only as a human being can a bodhisattva become a buddha. Moreover, according to Theravada, human beings can choose to do good works which will result in a good rebirth or bad works which result in a bad rebirth ; above all, they have the capacity to become perfected saints.
All these capacities are accounted for in terms of a carefully enumerated series of dhammas Sanskrit: In continual motion, these changing states appear, age, and disappear. Classification of dhammas Dhammas are divided and subdivided into many groups.is as usual the place to go to get quantitative analysis of the primaries.
They project Trump as getting 85 of the 91 delegates in New York, and still coming up about eighty delegates short of locking in a victory before the convention.
Between and , under Mao Zedong’s 毛泽东 leadership, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) implemented socialist economic policies. In the s, the central planning of industry (with an emphasis on heavy industry) was introduced, modeled on the five-year plans of the Soviet Union, and.
1. Introduction. Since Korean Buddhism has come to the attention of Western scholarship rather late compared with Chinese and Japanese Buddhism, it still lies, with its deep store of untouched resources, almost fully open for exploration.
Heroes and Villains - A little light reading. Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it .
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (– BCE), who .
Sinocentrism refers to the ideology that China is the cultural center of the world.